portuguese | english Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria ISSN print 1516-4446
ISSN on-line 1809-452X
JCR IF 2016: 2.049
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Current issue 4, Volume 39 - Oct/Nov/Dec/2017


2 - The relationship between multiple sclerosis and neuropsychiatric syndromes
James McLoughlin; Brian P. Hallahan
Pages: 283 - 283


3 - When the past is present
Albina R. Torres; Daniel L.C. Costa; Eurípedes C. Miguel
Pages: 284 - 285


4 - Latent class profile of psychiatric symptoms and treatment utilization in a sample of patients with co-occurring disorders
Luis Villalobos-Gallegos; Rodrigo Marín-Navarrete; Calos Roncero; Hugo González-Cantú
Pages: 286 - 292

OBJECTIVE: To identify symptom-based subgroups within a sample of patients with co-occurring disorders (CODs) and to analyze intersubgroup differences in mental health services utilization.
METHODS: Two hundred and fifteen patients with COD from an addiction clinic completed the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Subgroups were determined using latent class profile analysis. Services utilization data were collected from electronic records during a 3-year span.
RESULTS: The five-class model obtained the best fit (Bayesian information criteria [BIC] = 3,546.95; adjusted BIC = 3,363.14; bootstrapped likelihood ratio test p < 0.0001). Differences between classes were quantitative, and groups were labeled according to severity: mild (26%), mild-moderate (28.8%), moderate (18.6%), moderate-severe (17.2%), and severe (9.3%). A significant time by class interaction was obtained (chi-square [χ2[15]] = 30.05, p = 0.012); mild (χ2[1] = 243.90, p < 0.05), mild-moderate (χ2[1] = 198.03, p < 0.05), and moderate (χ2[1] = 526.77, p < 0.05) classes displayed significantly higher treatment utilization.
CONCLUSION: The classes with more symptom severity (moderate-severe and severe) displayed lower utilization of services across time when compared to participants belonging to less severe groups. However, as pairwise differences in treatment utilization between classes were not significant between every subgroup, future studies should determine whether subgroup membership predicts other treatment outcomes.

Descriptors: Co-occurring disorders; latent class profile; treatment utilization; psychiatric symptoms

5 - Prevalence of and factors associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy in patients with serious mental illness: Findings from a cross-sectional study in an upper-middle-income country
Kerryn S. Armstrong; Henk Temmingh
Pages: 293 - 301

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) among patients with serious mental illness in the current South African health care context.
METHODS: We collected data on patient, illness, and treatment characteristics of patients discharged on one or more antipsychotic agents from January to June 2014. We analyzed the associations of APP with demographic and clinical variables using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression, and examined prescription patterns.
RESULTS: The prevalence of APP in our study population of 577 patients was 28.4%. Demographic and clinical characteristics significantly associated with APP included age > 29, male sex, diagnosis of schizophrenia, comorbid intellectual disability, comorbid substance use, greater number of hospital admissions, and high-dose prescribing. First-generation antipsychotics and long-acting injectable preparations were prominent in APP combinations. Co-prescription of anticholinergic agents and sodium valproate demonstrated a significant association with APP.
CONCLUSION: APP appears common in our population, despite lack of evidence for the practice and possible risk of harm. Our findings suggest a complex interplay among patient, illness, and treatment factors relevant to APP in our setting that could be targeted for intervention.

Descriptors: Antipsychotic agents; polypharmacy; mental illness

6 - Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphisms modulate working memory in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls
Camila T. Matsuzaka; Denise Christofolini; Vanessa K. Ota; Ary Gadelha; Arthur A. Berberian; Cristiano Noto; Diego R. Mazzotti; Leticia M. Spindola; Patricia N. Moretti; Marilia A.C. Smith; Maria I. Melaragno; Sintia I. Belangero; Rodrigo A. Bressan
Pages: 302 - 308

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, related to dopaminergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is hypothesized that functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene could mediate the relationship between cognition and dopamine activity in the PFC. Other COMT SNPs could also play a role.
METHODS: We evaluated the role of three COMT SNPs (rs737865, rs165599, and rs4680) in schizophrenia and their impact on three working memory tasks. For genetic association analyses, 212 individuals with schizophrenia and 257 healthy controls (HCs) were selected. The Visual Working Memory (VWM) Task, Keep Track Task, and Letter Memory Task were administered to 133 schizophrenics and 93 HCs.
RESULTS: We found a significant association of rs737865, with the GG genotype exerting a protective effect and the GA haplotype (rs4680/rs165599) exerting a risk effect for schizophrenia. COMT rs4680 AA carriers and rs737865 AA carriers scored lowest on the Keep Track Task. When the genotype*group interaction effect was evaluated, rs165599 exerted opposite effects for VWM and Keep Track task performance in patients and controls, with AA carriers scoring lowest on both tests among controls, but highest among patients.
CONCLUSION: These data support the hypothesis that COMT polymorphisms may be associated with schizophrenia and modulate cognition in patients and controls.

Descriptors: Cognition; dopamine; gene

7 - The relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and executive function among individuals with schizophrenia: differences by illness duration
Viviane Grassmann; Mehala Subramaniapillai; Mark Duncan; Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos; Guy E. Faulkner
Pages: 309 - 315

OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness characterized by positive and negative symptoms. Cognitive impairment continues to be a core and consistent deficit. Previous studies have shown that physical activity (PA) is positively associated with cognitive performance. Thus, it may play a supportive role in mitigating cognitive impairments among individuals with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and executive function among adults with schizophrenia.
METHODS: The weekly amount of MVPA (assessed using accelerometers) and executive function (as per Brief Neurocognitive Assessment for Schizophrenia) of 78 adults with schizophrenia (mean [SD] age 42.4 [11.4] years; illness duration 17.0 [11.0] years; 58.2% male) were assessed in this cross-sectional study. Pearson correlations were calculated, followed by a linear regression. Participants were first analyzed together and then dichotomized on the basis of illness duration.
RESULTS: There was no significant association between MVPA and executive function, independent of the duration of illness. For individuals with < 15 years of illness, there was a significant association between weekly MVPA and working memory performance.
CONCLUSION: PA appears to be associated with executive function in some, but not all, individuals with schizophrenia.

Descriptors: Accelerometry; executive function; physical activity; schizophrenia

8 - Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents
Fiorela Flores-Cornejo; Mayumi Kamego-Tome; Mariana A. Zapata-Pachas; German F. Alvarado
Pages: 316 - 322

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
RESULTS: Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest.
CONCLUSIONS: Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.

Descriptors: Adolescents; body image; depression

9 - ''I love you forever (more or less)'' - stability and change in adolescents' romantic love status and associations with mood states
Hafez Bajoghli; Vahid Farnia; Narges Joshaghani; Mohammad Haghighi; Leila Jahangard; Mohammad Ahmadpanah; Dena Sadeghi Bahmani; Edith Holsboer-Trachsler; Serge Brand
Pages: 323 - 329

OBJECTIVE: Experiencing romantic love is an important part of individual development. Here, we investigated stability and change in romantic love and psychological correlates, including mood states, anxiety, and sleep, among Iranian adolescents over a period of 8 months.
METHOD: Two hundred and one adolescents who had taken part in a previous study were contacted; 157 responded. Participants completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, current state of love, and mood, including symptoms of depression, anxiety (state and trait), and hypomania. They also completed a sleep and activity log.
RESULTS: Of 64 participants formerly in love, 45 were still in love; of 86 participants not in love at baseline, 69 were still not in love (overall stability, 76%); 17 had fallen in love recently while 19 were no longer in love. Significant and important changes in mood and anxiety were observed in that experiencing romantic love was associated with higher anxiety scores. Hypomania scores increased in those newly in love, and decreased in those in a longer-lasting romantic relationship. Sleep and sleep-related variables were not associated with romantic love status.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that, among Iranian adolescents, the state of love is fairly stable, and that love status seems to be associated with specific states of mood and anxiety.

Descriptors: Adolescents; romantic love; stability; change; state anxiety; hypomania; sleep

10 - Brazilian cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire (LTE-Q)
Patrícia B. de Abreu; Hugo Cogo-Moreira; Regina A. Pose; Ronaldo Laranjeira; Raul Caetano; Carolina M. Gaya; Clarice S. Madruga
Pages: 330 - 336

OBJECTIVE: To perform a construct validation of the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire (LTE-Q), as well as convergence validation by identifying its association with drug use in a sample of the Brazilian population.
METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS), which used a cross-cultural adaptation of the LTE-Q in a probabilistic sample of 4,607 participants aged 14 years and older. Latent class analysis was used to validate the latent trait adversity (which considered the number of events from the list of 12 item in the LTE experienced by the respondent in the previous year) and logistic regression was performed to find its association with binge drinking and cocaine use.
RESULTS: The confirmatory factor analysis returned a chi-square of 108.341, weighted root mean square residual (WRMR) of 1.240, confirmatory fit indices (CFI) of 0.970, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) of 0.962, and root mean square error approximation (RMSEA) score of 1.000. LTE-Q convergence validation showed that the adversity latent trait increased the chances of binge drinking by 1.31 time and doubled the chances of previous year cocaine use (adjusted by sociodemographic variables).
CONCLUSION: The use of the LTE-Q in Brazil should be encouraged in different research fields, including large epidemiological surveys, as it is also appropriate when time and budget are limited. The LTE-Q can be a useful tool in the development of targeted and more efficient prevention strategies.

Descriptors: Brazil; validation; epidemiology; adverse life events assessment

11 - Trypophobia: an investigation of clinical features
Michelle Vlok-Barnard; Dan J. Stein
Pages: 337 - 341

OBJECTIVE: Trypophobia refers to the fear of, or aversion to, clusters of holes. We assessed clinical features of trypophobia and investigated whether it most resembled a specific phobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder.
METHODS: An online survey was conducted to gather information on sociodemographic variables, course and duration, severity, associated features, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and levels of psychological distress and impairment in individuals with trypophobia. The survey also explored whether such individuals experienced more fear or disgust, and whether symptoms showed more resemblance to a specific phobia or to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Associations of symptom severity and duration with degree of impairment were investigated.
RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-five individuals completed the questionnaire. Symptoms were chronic and persistent. The most common associated comorbidities were major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Trypophobia was associated with significant psychological distress and impairment. The majority of individuals experienced disgust rather than fear when confronted with clusters of holes, but were more likely to meet DSM-5 criteria for specific phobia than for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Symptom severity and duration were associated with functional impairment.
CONCLUSIONS: Given that individuals with trypophobia suffer clinically significant morbidity and comorbidity, this condition deserves further attention from clinicians and researchers.

Descriptors: Trypophobia; specific phobia; obsessive-compulsive disorder; internet survey

12 - Increased affective empathy in bipolar patients during a manic episode
Anna Bodnar; Janusz K. Rybakowski
Pages: 342 - 345

OBJECTIVE: To assess both cognitive and affective empathy in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) during an acute manic or depressive episode.
METHODS: The study included 25 patients with BD (aged 35±14 years) during an acute manic episode, 25 bipolar patients (aged 41±14 years) during a depressive episode, and 25 healthy control subjects (aged 36±11 years). Cognitive and affective empathy were assessed using the Multifaceted Empathy Test.
RESULTS: In both manic and depressive patients, a significant deficit in cognitive empathy was demonstrated. However, indices of affective empathy were significantly higher in the manic group than in depressed and control subjects. In the depressed patients, indices did not differ from those of healthy controls. For affective empathy, a significant positive correlation was found with intensity of manic symptoms and a negative correlation was found with intensity of depressive symptoms. No such correlations were observed with cognitive empathy.
CONCLUSION: We found evidence of increased affective empathy (overempathizing) during a manic episode in bipolar patients. This phenomenon may be connected with disturbances in emotion inhibition related to anastrophic thinking and associated with increased activity of mirror neurons, all of which occur during a manic episode.

Descriptors: Mood disorders, bipolar; cognitive neuroscience; emotion; tests/interviews, psychometric; models/theories of psychiatry

13 - Crack-cocaine users have less family cohesion than alcohol users
Nino C. Marchi; Juliana N. Scherer; Mayra P. Pachado; Luciano S. Guimarães; Gerson Siegmund; Melina N. de Castro; Silvia Halpern; Daniela Benzano; Maria L. Formigoni; Marcelo Cruz; Flavio Pechansky; Felix H. Kessler
Pages: 346 - 351

OBJECTIVE: Many studies correlate characteristics of family functioning and the development of drug addiction. This study sought to evaluate and compare the family environment styles of two groups of psychoactive substance users: 1) alcohol-only users and 2) crack-cocaine users.
METHODS: Three hundred and sixty-four users of alcohol, crack-cocaine, and other drugs, recruited from research centers in four Brazilian capitals participated in this study. Subjects were evaluated through the Family Environment Scale and the Addiction Severity Index, 6th version (ASI-6). ASI-6 t-scores were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc tests. A final model was obtained using a logistic regression analysis. All analyses were adjusted for partner, age, and psychiatric t-score.
RESULTS: We found a significant difference between groups in the cohesion subscale (p = 0.044). The post-hoc test revealed a difference of 1.06 points (95%Ci 0.11-2.01) between groups 1 (6.45±0.28) and 2 (5.38±0.20). No significant between-group differences were observed in the other subscales. However, categorical analyses of variables regarding family dynamic showed that crack users more often reported that sometimes people in their family hit each other (30.4% vs. 13.2%, p = 0.007) and that people in their family frequently compared each other regarding work and/or school achievement (57.2% vs. 42.6%, p = 0.041).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that families of crack-cocaine users are less cohesive than families of alcohol users. This type of family environment may affect treatment outcome, and should thus be adequately approached.

Descriptors: Family; family relationships; cohesion; substance abuse; alcohol use; crack-cocaine use

14 - Barriers to early identification of autism in Brazil
Sabrina H. Ribeiro; Cristiane S. de Paula; Daniela Bordini; Jair J. Mari; Sheila C. Caetano
Pages: 352 - 354

OBJECTIVE: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) seem to perceive that their child's development is not following the normal pattern as early as the first year of life. However, ASD children may not receive a diagnosis until they are of preschool age, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathway between initial parental concerns about atypical child development and ASD diagnosis in Brazil.
METHODS: Nineteen mothers whose children had been diagnosed with ASD participated and were interviewed. The ASD group consisted of two girls and 17 boys, with a mean age of 93.0 months (SD 48.4 months; range 39-197 months).
RESULTS: Mothers had their first concerns regarding ASD when children were 23.6±11.6 months old, but formal diagnosis occurred at a mean ± SD age of 59.6±40.5 months, corresponding to a 3-year delay. Most mothers felt discouraged to address their concerns due to negative experiences with health professionals.
CONCLUSION: In Brazil, mothers perceived the first signs of ASD in their children at an age similar to that reported in other countries, but the diagnosis of ASD seemed to be delayed. Consistent with the literature, mothers reported negative experiences with health professionals during the pathway to achieving ASD diagnosis.

Descriptors: Autism spectrum disorder; parental identification; delayed diagnosis; low-and middle-income countries

15 - Kraepelin's views on obsessive neurosis: a comparison with DSM-5 criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder
Holger Steinberg; Dirk Carius; Leonardo F. Fontenelle
Pages: 355 - 364

Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) is considered one of the founders of modern psychiatric nosology. However, his conceptualization of obsessive-compulsive phenomena is relatively understudied. In this article, we compare and contrast excerpts from the eighth edition (1909-1915) of Kraepelin's Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry focusing on what Kraepelin called ''obsessive neurosis'' and related ''original pathological conditions'' with the current DSM-5 criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Consistently with DSM-5 OCD, Kraepelin described obsessive neurosis as characterized by obsessive ideas, compulsive acts, or both together. His detailed descriptions of these symptoms are broadly coherent with their characterization in DSM-5, which is also true for the differential diagnoses he provided. He also mentioned cases illustrating decreased insight into symptoms and association with tic disorders. In conclusion, Kraepelin's experience, which reflects decades of consistent clinical work, may help validate current ideas and explain how the current conceptualization has emerged and developed. Even though one can hardly say that the classification laid out in DSM-5 goes back to Kraepelin's views directly, it still is true that Kraepelin played an outstanding role in systematizing psychiatric diagnostic criteria in general, and provided a major contribution to the conceptual history of OCD.

Descriptors: History of psychiatry; obsessive-compulsive disorder; diagnosis and classification; neurosis; Tourette's disorder

16 - Psychiatric event in multiple sclerosis: could it be the tip of the iceberg?
Moussa A. Chalah; Samar S. Ayache
Pages: 365 - 368

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Psychiatric comorbidities are highly prevalent in patients with MS, and can have drastic impact on quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Despite this high prevalence, whether psychiatric manifestations may represent the first signs of MS is still debatable. This constitutes an important issue, since early diagnosis of ''psychiatric-onset MS'' would result in prompt management, which usually ameliorates long-term prognosis. Here, we discuss clinical and radiological hints that suggest a diagnosis of psychiatric-onset MS. Briefly, this entity should be considered in healthy patients presenting with late-onset psychiatric symptoms, with or without cognitive decline, and with negative family history of psychiatric diseases. A thorough neurological exam is crucial to detect any subtle neurological signs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is recommended to rule out frontotemporal lesions that might explain the clinical picture. Poor response to standard psychiatric treatments provides additional evidence for the diagnosis of an organic disease (e.g., MS). Combining psychopharmaceuticals with intravenous corticosteroids would result in good outcomes, but patients should be monitored carefully for possible psychiatric exacerbation, a common side effect of steroids.

Descriptors: Psychiatric relapse; multiple sclerosis; mood; depression; mania; psychosis

17 - Mental health problems among medical students In Brazil: a systematic review and meta-analysis
João P. Pacheco; Henrique T. Giacomin; Wilson W. Tam; Tássia B. Ribeiro; Claudia Arab; Italla M. Bezerra; Gustavo C. Pinasco
Pages: 369 - 378

OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive picture of mental health problems (MHPs) in Brazilian medical students by documenting their prevalence and association with co-factors.
METHODS: We systematically searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, and PsycINFO databases for cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of MHPs among medical students in Brazil published before September 29, 2016. We pooled prevalences using a random-effects meta-analysis, and summarized factors associated with MHP.
RESULTS: We included 59 studies in the analysis. For meta-analyses, we identified the summary prevalence of different MHPs, including depression (25 studies, prevalence 30.6%), common mental disorders (13 studies, prevalence 31.5%), burnout (three studies, prevalence 13.1%), problematic alcohol use (three studies, prevalence 32.9%), stress (six studies, prevalence 49.9%), low sleep quality (four studies, prevalence 51.5%), excessive daytime sleepiness (four studies, prevalence 46.1%), and anxiety (six studies, prevalence 32.9%). Signs of lack of motivation, emotional support, and academic overload correlated with MHPs.
CONCLUSION: Several MHPs are highly prevalent among future physicians in Brazil. Evidence-based interventions and psychosocial support are needed to promote mental health among Brazilian medical students.

Descriptors: Mental health; depression; medical students; mental disorders

18 - Confirmatory factor analysis of the general activities of daily living scale: further evidences of internal validity
Jonas Jardim de Paula; Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque; Maria Aparecida Camargos Bicalho; Marco Aurélio Romano-Silva
Pages: 379 - 380


20 - Zika virus infection followed by a first episode of psychosis: another flavivirus leading to pure psychiatric symptomatology
Gabriel Elias Corrêa-Oliveira; Julia Lopes do Amaral Benedito Antônio Lopes da Fonseca; Cristina Marta Del-Ben
Pages: 382 - 382


21 - Lack of protocols for handling missing sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in depression trials: what are the risks of neglecting missing sessions?
Rivadávio F. Amorim; Monique Gomes da Silva Scalco; Maria Cecília de Freitas-Ferrari; Tiago Freitas; Heitor Moreno; Aline Patrícia Brietzke; Joaquim Brasil-Neto
Pages: 382 - 383


22 - Brazil: world leader in anxiety and depression rates
Ildebrando Moraes de Souza; João Paulo Machado-de-Sousa
Pages: 384 - 384


23 - Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), DSM-5 update: translation into Brazilian Portuguese
Arthur Caye; Renata R. Kieling; Thiago B. Rocha Ana S. Graeff-Martins; Cristiane Geyer Fernanda Krieger; Gisele G. Manfro; Helena Brentani; Luciano Isolan; Maria C. Rosário; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira; Sheila C. Caetano; Tais Moriyama; Luis A. Rohde; Christian Kieling
Pages: 384 - 386